Fluoridation: Australian States, Canadian and New Zealand Provinces:

Australian States:

  1. New South Wales: “Water fluoridation helps prevent tooth decay in people of all ages. Scientific research shows that water fluoridation is effective and safe. Adding fluoride to drinking water is important for protecting the health of people in NSW.
  2. Queensland: “Along with a combination of a healthy diet, good oral hygiene, use of fluoride toothpaste and regular dental check-ups, water fluoridation is an effective strategy to prevent tooth decay.
  3. South Australia: “In most areas of South Australia, fluoride is added to tap water to help protect teeth against decay. The amount of fluoride added is small and closely regulated. It is not harmful to your health or the environment. Water fluoridation is well recognised as a safe and effective way to protect your teeth.
  4. Tasmania: “Community water fluoridation is a public health measure that aims to reduce dental decay. It is the controlled adjustment of fluoride compound to a public water supply in order to bring the fluoride concentration up to a level that reduces tooth decay.
  5. Victoria: “Water fluoridation helps protect teeth from decay and is the most effective way to provide the benefits of fluoride to everyone in Victoria.
  6. Western Australia: “Fluoride is naturally found in all water sources, including fresh and sea water. Fluoride is also found naturally in a wide range of food items including tea, fish and rice. When present in drinking water at the optimum level, or used in dental treatments, fluoride can promote dental health by helping to prevent tooth damage and decay.

1.  Canadian Provinces and Three Territories:

  1. Alberta Health and Alberta Health Services recognize that community water fluoridation effectively prevents tooth decay, especially among people who are most vulnerable. It offers significant benefit with very low risk and reaches all residents who are connected to a municipal water supply. Therefore, Alberta Health and Alberta Health Services endorse community water fluoridation as a foundational public health measure to prevent dental disease and improve oral health.  My Health Alberta: “Community water fluoridation is important for preventing tooth decay – is safe – benefits everyone – is cost effective.  Alberta Dental Association & Colleg
  2. Health Link British Columbia: “Studies show that children who drink fluoridated water can expect up to 35 per cent less decay than those who drink non-fluoridated water. By using fluoridated water, children develop strong teeth. As adults, they will have fewer cavities or missing teeth. Adults who drink fluoridated water can also expect to have less tooth decay.  “The College of Dental Hygienists of British Columbia stance on fluorides, for the prevention of caries, aligns with the current research provided by the Canadian Dental Hygienists Association (CDHA), the Canadian Dental Association (CDA), Health Canada, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Dental Federation (FDI).
  3. Manitoba: “The health effects of fluoride depend on the duration and level of exposure. In low doses, fluoride is beneficial and can prevent the development of dental cavities. ManitobaDentistConcerns by some suggest that water fluoridation is toxic and harmful. There is NO scientific evidence to support these allegations. The recommended level of fluoride added to the water supply has a built-in margin of safety that takes into consideration the use of fluoride from other sources on the most vulnerable age group in the population (22-36 months).
  4. The Office of the Chief Medical Officer of Health and the New Brunswick Dental Society support the fluoridation of public drinking water supplies in New Brunswick. Water fluoridation is a safe, effective, equitable and economical means of preventing dental cavities.  Cavities and gum disease may contribute to many serious conditions, such as diabetes and respiratory diseases.  Untreated cavities can also be painful and lead to serious infections.” “The New Brunswick Dental Society is urging municipalities in the province to reconsider adding fluoride to their water.”
  5. Newfoundland and Labrador Dental Association:  When consumed in drinking water, fluoride aids in the development of tooth structures. Over time, fluoridated water helps rebuild tooth enamel that is damaged by everyday acid wear from food and drink. Topical applications, such as fluoridated toothpaste, work hand-in-hand with fluoridated water to further strengthen tooth enamel against the impacts of daily acid.”
  6. The Nova Scotia Department of Health Promotion and Protection supports fluoridation of municipal drinking water supplies in Nova Scotian communities as a safe, effective and economical means of preventing dental caries in all age groups.  Nova Scotia Environment: “Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride, such as those added to municipal water supplies (0.8 – 1.0 mg/L), can reduce the risk of dental cavities.” (p. 107)   Nova Scotia Public Health Services: “The risk for dental caries in all age groups is best reduced by frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day.  To receive this daily benefit, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that people drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste.” p.5
  7. Public Health Ontario 2018: “Considering the dose-response relationship between the fluoride exposure and health effects, as a practice consideration it is important to fluoridate water at the optimal concentration, where a suitable trade-off is achieved (benefits are maximized and adverse effects are minimized)…. Overall, the existing literature suggests that at an optimal concentration of water fluoridation, the only adverse health consequence observed is a mild form of dental fluorosis.   Ontario Dental Association: “Community water fluoridation (CWF) is a safe and effective means of preventing dental decay. Our position is based on decades’ worth of overwhelming scientific evidence and is driven by our dedication to the provision of exemplary oral health care to our patients and communities.
  8. Prince Edward Island: “Your child is more likely to have early childhood tooth decay if your child does not receive optimal fluoride – your child lives In a community that does not have adequate levels of fluoride in its water.  Dental Health Resource, Healthy Teeth for Children: “Fluoride is a natural mineral that is found in soil, water and in various foods. Many communities in Canada add fluoride to the local water supply to help prevent tooth decay. It can also be found in many types of toothpaste, mouthwash and varnishes (polish applied to the teeth by a dentist).  Children who start using products with fluoride from an early age have fewer cavities than those who don’t.
  9. Quebec: “Fluorides reduce the effect of bacteria that cause cavities and make teeth more resistant to their action. Fluoridation of water generally reduces cavities in the population by 20 to 40%.  As a consequence, fluoridation of drinking water helps improve the health of teeth and maintain good overall wellness. It also has the benefit of significantly reducing cavities treatment needs and thus, personal spending on dental care. Quebec’s Order of Dentists has issued a call for the Quebec government to take charge and make fluoridation of drinking water a reality across the province.
  10. Government of Saskatchewan:  Community water fluoridation is the process of adjusting the natural fluoride concentration of a community’s water supply to optimal levels that protect teeth from tooth decay.  The Saskatchewan Ministry of Healthcontinues to support Community Water Fluoridation as a safe and effective public health measure in preventing tooth decay.  Water fluoridation benefits all residents serviced by community water supplies regardless of their age, social or economic status. … The Medical Health Officers’ Council of Saskatchewan support Health Canada’s recommendation of a level of 0.7 mg/L as the optimal target concentration for fluoride in drinking water with 1.5 mg/L being the maximal acceptable level for drinking water.   College of Dental Surgeons of Saskatchewan: “Community water fluoridation is known to improve dental health safely and effectively at a very reasonable cost.  SaskH2O, “Fluoride is also artificially added to drinking water through a process knows as fluoridation as fluoride has been found to strengthen tooth enamel and protect against the acids that cause tooth decay. 
  11. Northwest Territories Oral Health Action Plan: “Promote oral health with a population health approach • Oral health literacy  • Water fluoridation  Drinking Water in the NWT: “Water sources in the NWT typically have naturally occurring fluoride levels between 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L. Based on the recommendation of Health Canada’s Chief Dental Officer, the NWT Chief Public Health Officer has determined that the optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water for dental health benefits should be 0.7 mg/L.
  12. Nunavut Territory:  Nunavut Smiles, created to help Nunavummiut keep updated of the Oral Health Division’s activities states, “Is fluoride safe? Yes! The use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries is approved by over 90 national and international professional health organizations.
  13. Yukon Territory – nothing found

1.  New Zealand Provinces:

New Zealand Ministry of Health, “Water fluoridation is the process of adjusting the natural level of fluoride in the water supply to between 0.7 ppm and 1.0 ppm. This is the optimal amount that provides protection against tooth decay.

  North Island

1.    Auckland Regional Public Health Service states, "Adding fluoride to the water system doesn’t change the taste or smell of water and it is a safe and effective way to protect against tooth decay, ... Drinking fluoridated water is good for people of all ages including young children, pregnant women and older people Extensive scientific research confirms water fluoridation is safe for everyone."  In a 2/2017 response to the Health (Fluoridation of Drinking Water) Amendment Bill, "The Auckland Regional Public Health Service (ARPHS), and the three Auckland district health boards (DHBs), strongly support community water fluoridation (CWF) as the most cost-effective population-based strategy for improving oral health."

2.    Bay of Plenty District Health Board, “Improving oral health is an important priority for the BOPDHB and we strongly support water fluoridation as part of a comprehensive approach to improving oral health and preventing tooth decay,” says Helen Mason."

3.    Capital & Coast District Health Board "endorses community water fluoridation as an effective public health measure contributing to the maintenance of oral health, prevention of tooth decay and reduction in health inequalities. Community water fluoridation is a low cost measure that benefits people of all ages with natural teeth and has proven over the last 65 years to be very safe."

4.    Counties-Manukau District Health Board – “A joint Auckland region DHB position will confirm that oral health is a key priority for equity and will provide transparency on the DHB’s position on community water fluoridation.  The New Zealand Oral Health Survey shows that New Zealanders living in areas with community water fluoridation have significantly less lifetime risk of tooth decay than those in non-fluoridated areas. A review by the Royal Society of New Zealand and the Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor concluded that community water fluoridation creates no health risks and provides protection against tooth decay at the concentration recommended by the New Zealand Ministry of Health, and is also supported by numerous reviews of international data.

5.    Hawke's Bay District Health Board clinical director for oral health Dr Robin Whyman said “the board supported fluoridation as evidence showed its effect on reducing dental decay, particularly in children.

6.    Hutt Valley District Health Board Position Statement on CWF, “Hutt Valley District Health Board endorses community water fluoridation as an effective public health measure contributing to the maintenance of oral health, prevention of tooth decay and reduction in health inequalities. Community water fluoridation is a low-cost measure that benefits people of all ages with natural teeth and has proven over the last 65 years to be very safe. Local drinking-water supplies that are already fluoridated should remain so. Where technically feasible, where local supplies are not fluoridated, local authorities are encouraged to implement water fluoridation programmes as soon as possible to improve the oral health of their communities.

7.    Lakes District Health Board Position Statement, “Lakes DHB maintains that topping up the natural fluoride in public water supplies is a key measure to improve the health of the entire population, adding that fluoridation: • Is scientifically proven to be safe, backed up by continuing research. • is cost effective. • does not require population behaviour change. • benefits all age groups, but most especially children, • benefits most, those whose health is poorest, namely Maori and those of low socio-economic status, • works for all sectors of the community.”

8.    Mid Central District Health BoardWater fluoridation has been shown to have positive beneficial outcomes on dental health.

9.    Northland District Health BoardCommunity water fluoridation is the process of adjusting the natural level of fluoride in the water supply to an optimal level (between 0.7 parts per million and 1.0 parts per million) that provides protection against tooth decay.

10. Tairāwhiti District Health Board – no position statement found

11. Taranaki District Health BoardFluoride, at a certain concentration in drinking water has benefits for oral health. Fluoride works in three ways to improve oral health: …

12. Waikato District Health Board – no position statement found

13. Wairarapa District Health Boardendorses community water fluoridation as an effective public health measure contributing to the maintenance of oral health, prevention of tooth decay and reduction in health inequalities.

14. Waitematā District Health Board – no position statement found

15. Whanganui District Health Board – no position statement found

South Island

16. Canterbury District Health Board "made its stance clear on adding fluoride to drinking water.  The DHB voted to continue its pro-fluoridation stance at a meeting today.  In the full position, it says it accepts the extensive scientific evidence that community water fluoridation is a safe, effective and socially equitable public health strategy for the prevention of tooth decay for whole populations."

17. Nelson-Marlborough District Health BoardEndorses community water fluoridation as an important public health measure in the maintenance of oral health, the prevention of tooth decay and the reduction of health inequalities.

18. South Canterbury District Health Board: “The majority of the South Canterbury District Health Board members agreed to actively promote the contentious benefits of fluoride in community water supplies.

19. Southern District Health Board: [our focus] “is in line with the Ministry of Health vision for an environment that promotes oral health, whether through fluoridated water, a healthy diet, or publicly funded services where they are most needed.

20. West Coast District Health Board Public Health Plan 2017-2018 includes: “Provide advice on the benefits of water fluoridation as necessary.