Three Types of Learning - Comparison:
|1. Use of Trial and
Error (T&E) Experimentation and Learning to Gain Knowledge
T&E experimentation is a significant component of legitimate
science. There are two additional aspects, however:
||Controls to minimize personal biases from influencing the
design and interpretation of experiments
||The construction of theories which enable knowledge gained
from experiments to be used to design additional experiments.
||T&E experimentation is a significant component of NotScience. Everyone
uses the methods of T&E to evaluate whether the specific NotScience
knowledge works for them individually or for their community. For most
of the NotScience categories, (Politics, Religion, Arts, Laws, Ethics,
Philosophy, etc.) experimentation can be used to generate new knowledge,
but unlike science, there is no way to independently, impartially validate
that information or the conclusions drawn from it.
T&E experimentation is the
only component of PseudoScience - there are no controls. If some trial
or experiment seems to solve a given problem that's the only thing that
matters. If the trial actually produces a legitimate solution, great.
If not -- if the presumed solution was not the real solution and only
seemed to work -- there are no processes in place to identify the problem
or correct the error.
||T&E experimentation is a significant component of BiasScience. Experimentation
is done to determine which specific information is effective when presented
to the public so the desired interpretation of the scientific results
can be communicated successfully.
|2. Dependence on Stories
to Communicate Knowledge
||Stories (research publications) that
describe the experiments and results that can be examined and duplicated
by others are critical to communicating scientific knowledge and theories.
Two key components of science are building on previous knowledge of
nature and exposing poorly conducted science.
||Stories communicate the accumulated
wisdom in all the NotScience categories to others. Non verbal 'stories'
can also be communicated in art and music.
||Personal stories about how a problem seems to have been solved are the
primary method of communicating information to others. PseudoScience
produces no knowledge or theories about the natural world that can be
used as a foundation for future understanding. At best, observations
can provide a starting point for scientific discovery.
||Stories convey and enhance
the edited bits of scientific information selected for communication to the public.
|3. Dependence on and
Acceptance of Authority to Distribute & Regulate Knowledge
Knowledge of the natural world/universe is transmitted as theories
and natural laws. Each discipline will have experts who are regarded
as knowledgeable Authorities. Textbooks often send the message
that there is a fixed scientific Doctrine. However, there is no
ultimate authority in the realm of science. Any theory that appears
true at some point in time potentially can be modified or overturned
with additional knowledge.
judgment, position, and opinion) within the scientific community determines
which theories in each field are accepted as valid at any given time.
That's as much Authority as legitimately allowed by the processes of
science. A Consensus evolves within any scientific specific
field by rigorous examination and review by experts in the field of
ALL relevant evidence. High quality, unbiased, reproducible
evidence contributes to the Consensus while poor quality, biased, one-of-a-kind
studies are rejected. By definition, then, beliefs that are
presented which are contrary to the Consensus are based on evidence
that has been carefully reviewed and rejected by the majority
of scientists in the field.
Methods of experimental and observational science cannot be used to
test or prove whether any NotScience beliefs and positions are true
or false, moral or immoral, right or wrong, good or evil, beautiful
or ugly. Consequently, believers in a specific position must accept
their own interpretations of 'reality' or the pronouncements of some
Authority or as True. In some instances a population can be forced to
accept a position believed true by an Authority.
||Those who create claims about
the natural world/universe that have not (and cannot) be independently
validated by science must set themselves up as Authorities to convince
others to believe in their creations. No other independent processes
exist that can validate their claims. So, there are numerous self-proclaimed
Authorities. There is no such thing as PseudoScientific Consensus.
||Those who extract and present the selected evidence to support their
beliefs must establish themselves as Authorities to convince the public
that their position - and not the scientific consensus - is True.
By definition the beliefs of those who practice BiasScience run counter
to the Scientific Consensus. Also by definition, the evidence they
believe supports their passionately held beliefs has already been evaluated
by the scientific community and has been found to be NOT SUFFICIENT
to change the Scientific Consensus.